здесь

Blog

Managing Crime: Situational Crime Prevention

Tuesday, February 13th, 2018

More Crime and Deviance pages from the University of Portsmouth, where this time the focus is on situational crime prevention. These pages are mainly based around the work of Hough, Clarke and Mayhew (1980) and Clarke (1992) that situated the idea of crime prevention around three broad strategies:

• Increase the effort
• Increase the risks
• Reduce the rewards

While there are some observations about the theoretical basis of Situational Crime Prevention – including a short section on Routine Activities Theory that we’ve previously mapped visually – most of the pages are devoted to examples of the practical implementation of the various crime prevention strategies identified by Clarke (1992). If you want a visual representation of these strategies that complements the following pages, this PowerPoint is one we posted earlier. You’ll notice a slight mismatch between the PowerPoint and the Strategies listed below that comes about because the PowerPoint, by Cornish and Clarke (2003), has updated the “broad strategies” by adding two more: “Reduce stimulus” and “Remove excuses”.

Techniques

1. Target Hardening

2. Access Control

3. Deflecting offenders 

4. Controlling Facilitators

5. Entry/Exit Screens

6. Formal surveillance

7. Private Security

8. Citizen Patrols 

9. Citizen surveillance

10. CCTV

11. Surveillance by employees

12. Natural surveillance  

Update

I’ve managed to find a link to the Menu System used by these pages which means you can access them all relatively easily without having to go to each individual page.

If the page gives you an access error, simply refresh it and all should be well.

 

Situational Crime Prevention: The (New Right) Theory

Monday, July 10th, 2017

In two previous posts (Categorising Situational Crime Prevention Strategies  and Categorising Situational Crime Prevention: Techniques and Exampleswe looked at some examples of situational crime prevention strategies and techniques and this third post examines the theoretical background to situational crime prevention in a couple of ways:

Firstly, by looking at the broad background in terms of a general “environmental discourse” that encompasses both cultural and physical environments.

Secondly by looking at a couple of specific New Right approaches – Control Theory and Routine Activities Theory – that flow from this general discourse.

 

Situational Crime Prevention Video

Thursday, June 8th, 2017

This is a video version of the Cornish and Clarke Situational Crime Prevention PowerPoint presentation.

The film runs for around 3 minutes.

Categorising Situational Crime Prevention Strategies

Thursday, June 1st, 2017

Situational crime prevention is an area that has grown in significance over the past 30 years, both in terms of social policies towards crime and sociological / criminological solutions to “the problem of crime”; it involves, according to Clarke (1997), a range of measures designed to reduce or eliminate “opportunities for crime” in three main ways:

  • The measures are “directed at highly specific forms of crime”.
  • They involve “the management, design or manipulation of the immediate environment in a systematic and permanent way”.
  • They “make crime more difficult and risky, or less rewarding and excusable”.

One potential difficulty for a-level students new to the concept, however, is the number and variety of different examples of situational crime prevention – from spatial and environmental controls (Designing Out Crime), through different forms of target hardening, to various types of formal and informal population surveillance and beyond.

To help students organize and make sense of this material, therefore, it can be useful to categorise it in terms of different situational crime prevention:

  • Strategies – the primary level of organisation.
  • Techniques associated with these strategies – the secondary level of organisation.

In this respect the work of Cornish and Clarke (2003) is instructive here because they identity 5 strategies that can be used as a primary level of organisation for ideas about situational crime prevention:

  1. Increase the effort required to commit a crime: This deters a wide range of opportunistic crimes if the time and effort to commit them is increased.
  1. Increase the risks associated with the crime: Increasing the likelihood of apprehension lowers the likelihood of a crime being committed.
  1. Reduce the rewards of crime: If the value gained from offending can be lowered there is less incentive for crime.
  1. Reduce stimulus that provokes crime: Careful management of the social and physical environment reduces incentives for criminal behaviour
  1. Remove excuses: Clearly signposting behavioural rules and laws removes the argument that people did not know they were behaving deviantly or illegally.

The secondary level of organisation identified by Cornish and Clarke involves 25 different crime prevention techniques (5 associated with each strategy) that can be introduced to students if you want them to dig deeper into situational crime prevention. These ideas will be introduced and explained in a subsequent post (probably, but not necessarily, called “Part 2″).

Situational Crime Prevention

Tuesday, December 30th, 2014

scpExamples of different types of Situational Crime Prevention aren’t too hard to find (Alley Gates / Defensible Space, various forms of target-hardening etc.) but a couple of new ones – to me at least – might be useful to add to the list:

1, Community Shelters: Used as “safe places” for “young people” (12 -18) to meet as an alternative to hanging around on the street. Often used in conjunction with Police Community Support Officers and seen as a way to:

  • Provide “safe spaces” for young people.
  • Control youth behaviour (as a way of keeping them away from businesses and residential properties).

  • 2. Community Triggers: Anyone who has reported a certain number of Anti-Social Behaviour (ASB) incidents (usually 3 or more) can demand a review by relevant authorities (such as the Council or police) to explore ways a perceived and persistent problem can be resolved.

    The Crime and Deviance Channel: Subscribe

    Tuesday, July 10th, 2018

    Subscribe

    The Crime and Deviance Channel is a subscription service that offers teachers and students a range of resources designed to enhance the teaching and learning of this a-level topic.

    A subscription to the Channel costs just £??.?? a year and gives you access to range of teaching and learning resources, including:

    Video
    Around 150 minutes of video illustrating a range of key concepts and theories (Strain, Realism, Labelling, Green Crime, Situational Crime Prevention etc.). Each film is relatively short (between 1 – 10 minutes) and is designed to be integrated into classroom / flipped teaching.

    Audio
    Around 70 minutes of audio material covering topics such as moral panics, realism and edgework.

    PowerPoint
    A range of slides and presentations designed to illustrate key ideas and concepts in the sociology of crime and deviance.

    Free Trial
    If you’d prefer to Try Before You Buy…

    How to Subscribe 

    1. Online Payment via PayPal [credit / debit card or via PayPal account]

    [swpm_payment_button id=3269]

    Once payment has been accepted (all major credit and debit cards etc.) you’ll be asked to provide us with some basic information by registering. This allows us to set-up a username and password for you.

    2. Offline Payment via Invoice

    If you would like to be invoiced for the Crime Channel Subscription please email your order to:

    ShortCutstv Crime Channel Order

    Once we have received your order we will generate a log-in for you and contact you accordingly.

    Video and Audio
    The Crime Channel uses Html5 to deliver video and audio through your browser.

    If you can see and play the video below, your browser is compliant and you can happily subscribe, safe in the knowledge you will actually see films and hear audio for your money…

    Even More Online Crime Modules

    Thursday, June 21st, 2018

    These online Crime and Deviance learning modules cover situational crime prevention, white-collar crime and hate crime.

    After a brief detour down the side road that is Research Methods we’re back on the main Crime and Deviance highway with a serendipitous (i.e. totally unrelated but I needed to make this post a bit longer so I could fit some screenshots into it) set of modules developed by the University of Portsmouth, presumably to allow their students to enjoy the freedom to not bother attending lectures that is online learning (only joking. I’m pretty sure Portsmouth students are as diligent and industrious as the students from any other Palace of Learning you might care to name).

    The three modules are as follows:

    1. Situational Crime Prevention
    • Prevention Strategies
    • Situational Crime prevention theory
    • Target hardening and removal
    • Removing inducements
    • Rule setting
    • Surveillance (formal and informal)
    • Criticism of Situational Crime Prevention

    If you fancy delving a little deeper into this general area, the Situational Crime Prevention materials I’ve previously posted might help.

    2. Fraud
    • Fraud and Criminology
    • White Collar Crime

    3. Hate Crime
    • Definitions
    • Hate Crime Laws
    • The case for and against Hate Crime laws

    The By-Now Obligatory Tech Note: Depending on the age and type of your browser, you may find there are a few display issues with the resources. These issues, however, have a couple of work-arounds that should allow you to see the resources:

    1. If the main information window doesn’t load correctly you may see a blank window with a menu to the left. If this happens try refreshing your browser and the main window should load correctly. Alternatively, click the on-screen arrow to close the menu, click it again to open it and select an option. This seems to refresh the main window correctly.

    2. If you see an “access denied” message in the main information window click the module title link to the right of the page navigation menu (First, Previous, Next, Last…). This takes you to a page where you have the option to “View This Resource”. Clicking this link should make everything work okay.

    Crime Displacement PowerPoint

    Tuesday, January 23rd, 2018

    Over the past 50 years it’s probably fair to say that a great deal of the sociology of crime and deviance in both America and, to a lesser extent, the UK, has been orientated towards situational crime prevention techniques and strategies in terms of both practical strategies and theoretical explanations (such as Routine Activities Theory).

    Part of the reason for this preoccupation with both building better – and trying to strengthen existing – mouse-traps is that there’s quite a bit of evidence to demonstrate the efficacy of various crime prevention strategies in reducing crime. Painter and Farringdon’s Stoke-on-Trent Street Lighting study, for example, is a case in point if you want to illustrate this idea.

    However – and you probably knew there would be a but – when you’re looking at situational crime prevention in a-level sociology it’s always useful to have something up your sleeve for evaluation purposes and, in this instance, there are a couple of different types of “Yes, but…” evaluation you might want to consider.

    T6: Types of Crime Displacement

    The first focuses on six practical criticisms of SCP put-forward by Reppetto (1976) and Barr and Pease (1990) that describe various ways crime may be displaced by crime prevention techniques; that is, although a crime may be “prevented” it’s possible the offence is simply committed elsewhere, at a different time or by different people. In other words, while SCP strategies may give the appearance of “preventing crime” they may not be successful in every instance.

    An obvious example here might be the presence of a burglar alarm on a property. This may deter an offender but if they simply move to burgle another, unprotected, property in the next street has a crime actually been prevented?

    If you want to display the 6 types to your class I’ve put them into a simple Crime Displacement PowerPoint Presentation that should do the job adequately. If you’re not a PowerPoint Person the 6 types of crime displacement are:

    1. Temporal: The crime is committed at a different time.

    2. Tactical: The crime is committed using a different method.

    3. Target: The crime is committed against a different target.

    4. Territorial: The crime is committed in a different area.

    5. Type (or Functional): A different type of crime is committed.

    6. Transgressors (or Perpetrator Displacement): Prevented crimes are committed by different offenders.

    While the types are, I trust, fairly self-explanatory you might want to think about examples you could use to illustrate each type (or maybe suggest one example if needed and ask your students to think of others). A relatively simple example of Territorial crime displacement, for example, might be something like prostitution or drug-dealing.

    (more…)

    Restorative Justice: An Educational Dimension

    Thursday, January 4th, 2018

    You may – or as is probably more likely, may not – recall a post a while back that outlined some ideas on Braithwaite and Restorative Justice  as they relate to crime and criminal behaviour – a fact I mention only because I came across an interesting short video on how a school in Colorado (and no-doubt others in America) have introduced a form of restorative justice as an alternative to the more-traditional forms of punishment generally meted-out in such schools.

    (more…)

    SCP and the Craving for Hot Products

    Saturday, July 8th, 2017

    An important dimension of Routine Activities Theory is the element of target suitability and selection. Even in situations where a motivated offender is somewhere that lacks active guardians, how and why they select one target rather than another is an important question in relation to situational crime prevention.

    This was directly addressed by Felson and Cohen (1979), for example, in their “VIVA” mnemonic (Value, Inertia, Visibility, Accessibility) but Clarke (1999) has taken these general ideas further by arguing that some potential targets have what he calls “choice structuring properties”.

    That is, rather than thinking about crime conventionally in terms of an offender setting out to commit a criminal act, arriving in a place where the act can be committed and then selecting a suitable target some targets – what Clarke terms “Hot Products” – have characteristics that may:

  • Suggest the idea of theft to potential offenders and
  • Encourage them to seek out settings where desired products may be found.

  • In other words, the existence of “hot products” contributes to various forms of both opportunistic and carefully-planned crime and if we understand the characteristics of these products – the things that make them desirable objects (in both the manifest sense of their value and the latent sense of motivating individuals to possess them) – this will contribute towards an understanding of the situational controls that need to be developed around such targets.

    Clarke, in this respect, developed the mnemonic CRAVED to define the characteristics of hot products and I’ve developed two PowerPoint Presentations identifying each element in the mnemonic.

    This version simply displays the mnemonic as a self-running presentation – you can use this version if you simply want to present these ideas to students.

    This version offers the same information but can be used if you want to involve your students a little more. The presentation displays the CRAVED mnemonic but in order to display the meaning of each letter it has to be clicked. If you wanted to see if your students could work-out the characteristics of a hot product (such as a mobile / cell phone) this is the version to use.

    If you want to look in more detail at either the CRAVED mnemonic or Clarke’s ideas about hot products you can download his 1999 chapter “Hot Products: understanding, anticipating and reducing demand for stolen goods”.