Posts Tagged ‘media’
The third – and probably final – free chapter from Holt and Lewis’ “A2 Psychology: The Student’s Textbook”, this one covers addictive behaviour in terms of main areas:
Biological, cognitive and learning models of addiction, including explanations for initiation, maintenance and relapse
Explanations for specific addictions, including smoking and gambling
2. Factors affecting addictive behaviour
Vulnerability to addiction including self-esteem, attributions for addiction and social context of addiction
The role of media in addictive behavior
3. Reducing addictive behaviour
Models of prevention, including theory of reasoned action and theory of planned behaviour
Types of intervention, including biological, psychological, public health interventions and legislation, and their effectiveness.
Distil topic notes into key knowledge points, add illustrative examples and brief overviews of advantages and disadvantages, throw in some exam tips and short “test yourself” questions, call it a factsheet and sell it at a very reasonable price to teachers – which is exactly what the Curriculum Press (http://www.curriculum-press.co.uk) has done.
If you want samples of the various factsheets (their web site lists around 160), there are a few scattered around the web that I’ve cobbled together and presented here for your viewing pleasure: (more…)
I’ve called this a “Lesson Outline” (rather than Plan) because it’s designed to introduce and to some extent explain the related concepts of simulacra and hyperreality using practical examples to illustrate the processes.
What the Outline does is treat the related concepts of simulacra and hyperreality in more-depth than in usually the case with most Sociology A-Level textbooks; this isn’t a criticism of such books, rather an observation that there’s rarely enough space available to treat the concepts with the depth I think they deserve. In this respect the Outline details 1sr, 2nd and 3rd order simulacra and, in relation to the latter, hyperreality.
Whether or not you chose to go with the practical stuff is really up to you – it’s indicative rather than prescriptive – and there are no fancy timings or whatever to guide you through your use of the materials.
I have included a short (3 minute) video resource (https://youtu.be/ilps5xefBp8) you can use alongside the printed resource – again, nothing too fancy or prescriptive, just 6 short (around 30 seconds) clips you can integrate into your lesson if you so choose.
Download Lesson Outline (pdf)
Our handy round-up of all the sociology and psychology links we think you’ll like. Probably.
Thanks to the very useful online file converter Zamzar I was able to convert one of the old ATSS support booklets from it’s original Microsoft Publisher .pub format to a more-friendly and easily-edited Word format.
This booklet illustrates the concept of News Values and is based around the question of “Who creates the news?”. The material uses a mix of instruction and activities to encourage students to explore areas like:
- Editorial Decision Making
- Marxism and the Control of the News
- Pluralism and the Media Investigated
- How Representative is the British Media?
All the links that caught our eye this past week in one handy post…
Wealth, Poverty, Welfare
One of the obvious ways to study the media is through Content Analysis and a classic – if now somewhat dated – application of the method was the Glasgow Media Group’s pioneering research, evidenced through a series of books – Bad News (1976), More Bad News (1980), Really Bad News (1982) – that examined “the ‘common sense’ acceptance of the neutrality of television news” and concluded: “Contrary to the claims, conventions and culture of television journalism, the news is not a neutral product. For television news is a cultural artefact; it is a sequence of socially manufactured messages, which carry many of the culturally dominant assumptions of our society”. (more…)
The concept of a “media trope” refers to the recurrent use of particular ideas, themes and the like within (and sometimes across) different media and while tropes are often simple stylistic devices used to convey necessary information to an audience in a short space of time (Hollywood films, for example, use various recurring devices to denote “good” and “bad” characters) they can also be a lazy way of stereotyping whole groups of people.
This is something TV drama does a lot – and these are some of my “favourite” UK TV Tropes.
A significant feature of what we might call “crime in postmodernity” is the idea that the media, in all its many forms, plays a central role in the construction of criminogenic discourses, where the role of the media is twofold.
First, media are important because they propagate and, in some senses, control organise, criticise, promote and demote (marginalise) a variety of competing narratives.
Second, none of these is especially important in itself (teachers and students, for example, probably do most of these things); they become important, however, in the context of power and the ability to represent the interests of powerful voices in society.
In a situation where knowledge, as Sarup (1989) argues, is ‘fragmented, partial and contingent’ (‘relative’ or dependent on your particular viewpoint), and Milovanovic (1997) contends ‘there are many truths and no over-encompassing Truth is possible’, the role of the media assumes crucial significance in relation to perceptions of crime and deviance in contemporary societies. In this respect, media organisation takes two forms:
- Media discourses (generalised characterisations such as crime as ‘a social problem’) and
- Media narratives – particular ‘supporting stories’ that contribute to the overall construction of a ‘deviance discourse’ – instances, for example, where deviance is portrayed in terms of how it represents a ‘social problem’.
The various features of new media raise a new set of issues for both producers and consumers. In terms of the former, for example, the development of global computer networks have presented problems for media industries whose products are relatively easy to copy and distribute, with no loss of quality because of digital reproduction. The development of peer-to-peer networks, for example, has led to the rise of global forms of intellectual property theft (“piracy”), to which media conglomerates have responded in a range of ways:
- legal prosecutions of individual offenders and attempts to shut-down illegal providers, such as Napster and Megaupload.
- the development of new economic models. “Freemium” models, for example, provide a free service, such as software or a game, but users then pay a premium for “added extras”. Popular Facebook games, such as Farmville, have successfully taken this approach..
A further issue involves the “unauthorised access to computers and networks” (“hacking”), something that involves:
- governments: cyberwarfare, for example, involves governments engaging in the politically-motivated hacking of rival government computer networks for reasons that range from espionage to sabotage.
- organisations: In 2010 the American government claimed the cybertheft of copyrights and patents by China remained at “unacceptable levels”.
- individuals: viruses and malware designed to damage computers, extort money or steal information.
Specific issues for consumers have a number of dimensions, particularly those surrounding personal privacy. Social media such as Facebook make money through advertising, which can now be individualised, personalised and targeted through the sale of users’ personal data to third-parties; users, therefore, exchange “free” services for some loss of privacy. While corporations such as Facebook simply monitor how their network is used in terms of what an individual likes or dislikes, discusses or avoids in order to deliver adverts matched to these behaviours, Kosinski et al. (2013) have shown it is possible to accurately infer a wide range of personal information, such as ethnicity, IQ, sexuality, substance use and political views, from an analysis of an individual’s “likes”.
As I said in the previous post, I really like the idea of flipbooks – possibly because they give the illusion of actually reading a book, magazine or document in a way that reading text on a web page or in a pdf document doesn’t.
Having posted an example of a GCSE flipbook, here’s an a-level example; defining the mass media looks, as I suspect you might have guessed, at how we can define this particular concept both conventionally / historically and in contemporary terms that takes in the development of New Media.
Discussions about censorship at A2-level usually focus – quite understandably – on human agency, whether we’re thinking in terms of various forms of overt government / propriatorial censorship or the self-censorship that’s part-and-parcel of contemporary news values.
An interesting and slightly different dimension that could be worth introducing is the concept of algorithmic censorship; that is, the various forms of censorship that develop when software is programmed to pick-up or demote different types of news story on sites such as Facebook.
This article should help to illustrate this idea.
Cushion, Moore and Jewell’s (2011) study “Media representations of black young men and boys” is useful for media sociologists because of the way it attempts to research a specific type of media representation using a combination of methods to generate quantitative and qualitative data.
The study uses content analysis to quantify representations of black youth in British media. The main objective here is to discover whether or not negative stereotyping occurs.
Qualitative interviews with 10 journalists are then used to explore some of the news values employed by the British media and how they relate to – and go some way towards explaining – media representations of Black youth.
Interesting Ted-Talk about the portrayal of women through advertising and its possible effects.