Archive for September, 2014
If you’re looking for stuff to brighten and liven-up your classroom displays, it’s worth having a search through Pinterest for “inspirational” posters and informative infographics.
You can search for Pins on whatever topic you like, but to get you started why not have a look at:
“Does prison work?” is a question whose answer depends, to some extent, on the context in which it’s framed. In the UK, for example, the rationale for imprisonment has centred around four main ideas:
- retribution or punishment for an offence:
- incapacitation – an offender cannot commit further offences while imprisoned.
- deterrence – the threat of punishment to prevent offending.
- rehabilitation – helping the offender to reform to prevent future offending.
Each of these dimensions frames the question in the sense that “prison works” if it’s objective is punishment (retributive justice) but doesn’t seem to work if the objective is rehabilitation; rates of reoffending (recidivism) are notoriously high.
An important argument, however, is that the rehabilitative function of prison has been overwhelmed in recent years by its retributive function; rehabilitation has been a very low priority for politicians, media and public alike. This is partly explained by:
- economic factors – rehab can be expensive and labour-intensive.
- political factors – the idea rehabilitation somehow involves being “soft on crime”.
- ideological factors; the perception that “criminals” are people who, for various social / psychological reasons, can’t be reformed.
Recent ERSC-funded research, however, has thrown an interesting light on the idea of offender rehabilitation and uses a range of sociological and psychological insights to suggest news ways of transforming rehabilitation to cut reoffending.
If you’re interested in looking at these questions in another way, the Crime and Deviance Channel features Professor Carol Hedderman examining some key questions about the use of imprisonment in our society to control crime.
This American research has a number of interesting applications in terms of family sociology:
- gender roles within the family
- the feminisation of domestic labour
- women’s triple shift (paid labour; domestic labour; emotional labour)
- pivot / sandwich generation females
This is a fantastic free resource that works for teachers and students on a number of levels.
Research Methods: It’s a good example of a longitudinal study that samples around 40,000 households each year. It’s also an example of a representative survey (class, age, gender and ethnicity) from which it’s possible to make generalisations.
Health: The survey collects a range of empirical health data.
Families and Households: The main aim of the survey is to collect data about the social and economic circumstances of the UK population, in addition to their general attitudes and beliefs. It also collects data that is of more-specific interest to students studying the sociology of families and households, both in terms of empirical data and, by implication, sociological theory.
For example, recent research into divorce and separation based on data from the survey looks at the probability of marital breakdown as it relates to personal and structural economic factors – something that can be used to illustrate and inform debates about the relationship between structure and action at A-level (such as the significance of structural factors – economic recessions – on the choices people make about their relationships).
The scope and size of the data also makes it a prime candidate for individual student research that can be fed into larger classroom databases. Using resources such as Padlet, Trackk or Paper.li it’s possible to build-up a valuable class resource if students are encouraged to research the site and add what they find to one of these resources.
Reification is similar to the idea of anthropomorphism (giving human qualities to animals. Even if you’ve never heard of the word you’ll be familiar with what it involves from the thousands of YouTube videos, featuring cute cats and dotty dogs, that clog-up your Facebook feed. Also, every Disney cartoon that features talking mice, ducks and assorted farmyard animals).
The error of reification, however, involves attributing human characteristics to anything that is not human – and this makes it especially useful in some areas of Sociology, particularly those that talk about social structures in human terms.
It’s a particularly useful concept to apply when you want to criticise Functionalist perspectives that talk about social institutions having “needs” and “purposes” – such as the “purpose” of the education system being to satisfy the “needs” of the workplace for differentiated individuals.
The beauty of this concept for both AS and A2 students is that you can introduce it as a quick, easy and very effective way of introducing high-value evaluation into exam answers.
While the generally negative effects of educational streaming have long been argued, setting has proven to be a more-problematic concept, given that it combines some of the harder edges of “ability ranking” with softer concerns about attainment , ability groups and negative labelling.
This useful summary from the Education Empowerment Foundation provides a broad and accessible overview of the evidence.
Discussions about censorship at A2-level usually focus – quite understandably – on human agency, whether we’re thinking in terms of various forms of overt government / propriatorial censorship or the self-censorship that’s part-and-parcel of contemporary news values.
An interesting and slightly different dimension that could be worth introducing is the concept of algorithmic censorship; that is, the various forms of censorship that develop when software is programmed to pick-up or demote different types of news story on sites such as Facebook.
This article should help to illustrate this idea.
Cushion, Moore and Jewell’s (2011) study “Media representations of black young men and boys” is useful for media sociologists because of the way it attempts to research a specific type of media representation using a combination of methods to generate quantitative and qualitative data.
The study uses content analysis to quantify representations of black youth in British media. The main objective here is to discover whether or not negative stereotyping occurs.
Qualitative interviews with 10 journalists are then used to explore some of the news values employed by the British media and how they relate to – and go some way towards explaining – media representations of Black youth.